Use of Prepositions
Prepositions are short words (on, in, to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs).
Preposition “In” bisa digunakan untuk menyatakan:
- waktu yang tidak spesifik (dalam satu hari, bulan, musim, dan tahun),
- tempat atau lokasi
- sebagai indikasi sebuah bentuk, warna dan ukuran
- untuk mengungkapkan sesuatu yang sedang kita lakukan, atau
- untuk menunjukkan kepercayaan, pendapat, ketertarikan atau minat
- He always reads a comic book in the afternoon (waktu)
- The cat is in the basket (tempat)
- The trousers come in three different sizes atau That is a nice coat, does it come in black? (ukuran dan warna)
- In preparing for the championship, we doubled the training time (melakukan sesuatu)
- I am not interested in teaching (ketertarikan)
Prepositions “On” digunakan untuk:
- sesuatu terletak dipermukaan benda lainnya
- menyatakan hari dan tanggal yang spesifik
- merujuk penggunaan suatu alat
- merujuk bagian anggota tubuh
- menerangkan keadaan/kondisi
- The script is on my table (menunjukkan letak)
- I was born on the 20th day of August in 1995 (waktu yang spesifik)
- Our family favorite show will be on TV tonight (penggunaan benda)
- My father kissed me on my forehead (menunjuk bagian anggota tubuh)
- Every product with yellow label is on sale (keadaan sesuatu)
Prepositions “At” digunakan untuk:
- menunjukkan waktu yang spesifik
- menunjukkan tempat
- merujuk sebuah alamat email
- menunjukkan sebuah aktivitas atau kegiatan
- the train will arrive at 07.00 am (waktu yang spesifik)
- My father and my mother watched a concert at the city park (menunjukkan tempat)
- Contact us at email@example.com (rujukkam alamat email)
- I am good at teaching children (menunjukkan sebuah aktifas)
Common Adjective & Preposition Combinations
Adjectives are words used to describe a person, place, or thing. Prepositions are words used to connect two ideas, or to demonstrate the relationship between two concepts. There are many cases in which adjectives are combined with prepositions – but there is no rule stating when to use which combination. As you read and listen to more English, you will become more and more familiar with how these adjective-prepositions combinations are used. Here are a few of the most common combinations of adjectives and prepositions in English:
- I’m surprised at how fast my students are learning.
- My mother is angry at me because I forgot her birthday.
- Jamila is good at songwriting and painting.
- He’s terrible at math – he failed the class twice!
- The teacher was disappointed in the behavior of the class.
- She was highly skilled in physics and chemistry.
- Giovanni is interested in classic English literature.
- Marlene is very involved in volunteer work.
- You practiced a lot and gave a great performance – I’m proud of you!
- Jewell is afraid of swimming in the ocean.
- The kids are very fond of the puppy.
- The mall is always full of teenagers on the weekend.
Commobly Misused Words
Homophone, kata-kata yang pelafalannya (sound) sama namun artinya (meaning) berbeda. Adapun ejaannya sama.
Example : to (preposition), too (an adverb), two (a number)
- It’s a good way to ask for help.
- She likes swimming too.
- Only two cupcakes left.
Example : Accept (a verb meaning to receive), Except (also a verb meaning to exclude)
- I will accept all gift from my friends.
- He used to eat everything except
Confungisly Related Words
Kata yang menyebabkan masalah ketika pembicara tidak mampu membedakan antara mereka. Biasanya sama dalam arti/pengucapan tetapi tidak dapat digunakan secara bergantian.
Example : advice (noun) opinion to given to someone, Advise (verb) act of giving an opinion
- You should listen to your mother’s
- The doctor advised you to quit smoking.
Example : Access (noun) availability, Excess (adjective) abundant/superfluos
- I want to access
- Excess of a merit is a capital offence in morality.
Full Block Form
When writing a letter using block form, no lines are indented. Include your name, address, and phone number where you can be contacted, as well as the date. You then include the name and address of the person you are sending the letter to.
With new paragraphs, just skip a line instead of indenting.
Add your phone number where you can be contacted in the last paragraph. If the receiver needs to use a relay service to call you, briefly explain that you are deaf/ hard-of-hearing and that s/he can call you through relay. Give the receiver his/her state relay number and explain that s/he will need to give the operator your number. Then give him/her your number.
Indented Paragraphs Form
Name of Receiver
When writing a letter using indented form, indent each paragraph. First include your name, address, phone number, and the date. This information should be located at the top of the page, either in the center, or indented on the right side of the paper. You then include the name and address of the person to whom you are sending the letter.
Blocked Paragraphs Form
Name of Receiver
When writing a letter using blocked form, indent each paragraph. First include your name, address, phone number, and the date. This information should be located at the top of the page, either in the center, or indented on the right side of the paper. You then include the name and address of the person to whom you are sending the letter.
Simplified Style Form
Write a subject line instead of a salutation. The subject line must be in all capital letters.
At the end of the letter, put your name and title, all in capital letters.
- If you are using block format, you can place your address anywhere on the letter. You can place it at the top of the page (top center or top right side), or you can put your address at the end of the letter after your signature and name, regardless of which format you use.
- If you are using block form, you can place the date on the left, in the center, or on the right. However, if you are using the indented form, it is usually better to place the date on the right or on the left. Do not put it in the center.
- With the indented form, you can put your signature on the right or left side of the page.
- If you want to make your letter stand out, boldly type your name in a larger font at the top of the letter and type your address just below it in a smaller font.
Three men met at a tavern table. One was a weaver, another a
carpenter and the third a ploughman.
Said the weaver, “I sold a fine linen shroud today for two pieces
of gold. Let us have all the wine we want.”
“And I,” said the carpenter, “I sold my best coffin. We will have
a great roast with the wine.”
“I only dug a grave,” said the ploughman, “but my patron paid me
double. Let us have honey cakes too.”
And all that evening the tavern was busy, for they called often
for wine and meat and cakes. And they were merry.
And the host rubbed his hands and smiled at his wife; for his guests
were spending freely.
When they left the moon was high, and they walked along the road
singing and shouting together.
The host and his wife stood in the tavern door and looked after
“Ah!” said the wife, “these gentlemen! So freehanded and so gay!
If only they could bring us such luck every day! Then our son need
not be a tavern-keeper and work so hard. We could educate him,
and he could become a priest.”
The Good God and the Evil God met on the mountain top.
The Good God said, “Good day to you, brother.”
The Evil God did not answer.
And the Good God said, “You are in a bad humour today.”
“Yes,” said the Evil God, “for of late I have been often mistaken for you, called by your name, and treated as if I were you, and it ill-pleases me.”
And the Good God said, “But I too have been mistaken for you and called by your name.”
The Evil God walked away cursing the stupidity of man.
God of lost souls, thou who are lost amongst the gods, hear me:
Gentle Destiny that watchest over us, mad, wandering spirits, hear me:
I dwell in the midst of a perfect race, I the most imperfect.
I, a human chaos, a nebula of confused elements, I move amongst finished worlds—peoples of complete laws and pure order, whose thoughts are assorted, whose dreams are arranged, and whose visions are enrolled and registered.
Their virtues, O God, are measured, their sins are weighed, and even the countless things that pass in the dim twilight of neither sin nor virtue are recorded and catalogued.
Here days and night are divided into seasons of conduct and governed by rules of blameless accuracy.
To eat, to drink, to sleep, to cover one’s nudity, and then to be weary in due time.
To work, to play, to sing, to dance, and then to lie still when the clock strikes the hour.
To think thus, to feel thus much, and then to cease thinking and feeling when a certain star rises above yonder horizon.
To rob a neighbour with a smile, to bestow gifts with a graceful wave of the hand, to praise prudently, to blame cautiously, to destroy a sound with a word, to burn a body with a breath, and then to wash the hands when the day’s work is done.
To love according to an established order, to entertain one’s best self in a preconceived manner, to worship the gods becomingly, to intrigue the devils artfully—and then to forget all as though memory were dead.
To fancy with a motive, to contemplate with consideration, to be happy sweetly, to suffer nobly—and then to empty the cup so that tomorrow may fill it again.
All these things, O God, are conceived with forethought, born with determination, nursed with exactness, governed by rules, directed by reason, and then slain and buried after a prescribed method. And even their silent graves that lie within the human soul are marked and numbered.
It is a perfect world, a world of consummate excellence, a world of supreme wonders, the ripest fruit in God’s garden, the master-thought of the universe.
But why should I be here, O God, I a green seed of unfulfilled passion, a mad tempest that seeketh neither east nor west, a bewildered fragment from a burnt planet?
Why am I here, O God of lost souls, thou who art lost amongst the gods
(From “King Lear”)
When priests are more in world than matter;
When brewers mar their malt with water;
When nobles are their tailors’ tutors;
Nor heretics burn’d, but wenches’ suitors;
When every case in law is right;
No squire in debt, nor no poor knight;
When slanders do not live in tongues,
Nor cutpurses come not to throngs;
When usurers tell their gold i’ the field,
And bawds and whores do churches built;
Then shall the realm of Albion
Come to great confusion:
Then comes the time, who live to see’t,
That going shall be used by feet.